Which of the following is not a solution? How many mL of water must be added to mL of 0. What volume of concentrated nitric acid What is the molarity of a solution that contains 3.Thermochemical Equations Practice Problems
What is the molar concentration of a solution containing A hypertonic solution is one which has. TermCalculate the molarity of the following solution: 2. What is the molarith of a solution containing grams of calcium nitrite in mL of solution? How many grams of potassium carbonate are needed to make mL of a 2. How many liters of 0. TermI I dilute mL of 0. How many grams of sugar would you use to prepare mL of a 1. Is the following statement true or false?
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Preparing to study chemistry. Introduction to chemistry. Atomic number, mass number, and isotopes. The mole and Avogadro's number. Isotopes and mass spectrometry. Next lesson. Current timeTotal duration Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Video transcript Here some picture of what most people associate when they think of chemistry. They think of scientists working on a bench with the different vials of different chemicals. They might think of a mad scientist. Some of them boiling and changing colors.
They might associate chemistry with chemical equations. Thinking about how different things will react together to form other things. They might think about models of the different molecules that can be depicted different ways. They might associate it with the periodic table of elements.
And all of these things are a big part of chemistry. But I want you to do in this video is appreciate what at its essence chemistry is all about. And chemistry is one of the sciences that really just helps us understand and make models and make predictions about our reality.
And even something like the periodic table of elements, which you'll see at the front of any chemistry classroom, you take it for granted. But this is the product of, frankly, thousands of years of human beings trying to get to an understanding of all of the different complexity in the world.
If you look at the world around us, and it doesn't even have to be our planet, it could be the universe around us, you see all these different substances that seem to be different in certain ways. You see things like fire and rock and water. Even in the planets, you see meteorological patterns. In life, you see all of this complexity and all of these different things and it looks like there's just like a infinite spectrum of differentness out of there.New Program!
Chapter 6 Test Review - Bonding
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Willamette Promise. College Credit in High School. This text is published under creative commons licensing, for referencing and adaptation, please click here. So far, we have talked about chemical reactions in terms of individual atoms and molecules. Although this works, most of the reactions occurring around us involve much larger amounts of chemicals. Even a tiny sample of a substance will contain millions, billions, or a hundred billion billions of atoms and molecules.
How do we compare amounts of substances to each other in chemical terms when it is so difficult to count to a hundred billion billion? Actually, there are ways to do this, which we will explore in this chapter.
In doing so, we will increase our understanding of stoichiometry, which is the study of the numerical relationships between the reactants and the products in a balanced chemical reaction. Figure 6.
If we want to make 2 water molecules, we will need 4 hydrogen atoms and 2 oxygen atoms.
If we want to make 5 molecules of water, we need 10 hydrogen atoms and 5 oxygen atoms. The ratio of atoms we will need to make any number of water molecules is the same: 2 hydrogen atoms to 1 oxygen atom.
One problem we have, however, is that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to organize atoms one at a time. As stated in the introduction, we deal with billions of atoms at a time.
How can we keep track of so many atoms and molecules at a time? We do it by using mass rather than by counting individual atoms. A hydrogen atom has a mass of approximately 1 u.
An oxygen atom has a mass of approximately 16 u. The ratio of the mass of an oxygen atom to the mass of a hydrogen atom is therefore approximately If we have 2 atoms of each element, the ratio of their masses is approximatelywhich reduces to —the same ratio. If we have atoms of each element, the ratio of the masses is approximately 1, which again reduces to As long as we have equal numbers of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, the ratio of the masses will always be The same consistency is seen when ratios of the masses of other elements are compared.
For example, the ratio of the masses of silicon atoms to equal numbers of hydrogen atoms is always approximatelywhile the ratio of the masses of calcium atoms to equal numbers of lithium atoms is approximately So we have established that the masses of atoms are constant with respect to each other, as long as we have the same number of each type of atom.
Consider a more macroscopic example.New Program! Chemistry Teacher Education. Considering Dual Enrollment?
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Chapter 6 – Quantities in Chemical Reactions
Find Out More. Is Study Abroad Affordable? Financial Aid Options. Apply Now! Willamette Promise. College Credit in High School. This text is published under creative commons licensing, for referencing and adaptation, please click here. So far, we have talked about chemical reactions in terms of individual atoms and molecules.
Although this works, most of the reactions occurring around us involve much larger amounts of chemicals. Even a tiny sample of a substance will contain millions, billions, or a hundred billion billions of atoms and molecules. How do we compare amounts of substances to each other in chemical terms when it is so difficult to count to a hundred billion billion?
Actually, there are ways to do this, which we will explore in this chapter. In doing so, we will increase our understanding of stoichiometry, which is the study of the numerical relationships between the reactants and the products in a balanced chemical reaction. Figure 6. If we want to make 2 water molecules, we will need 4 hydrogen atoms and 2 oxygen atoms. If we want to make 5 molecules of water, we need 10 hydrogen atoms and 5 oxygen atoms.During reactions between metals and nonmetals, metal atoms tend to gain electrons and nonmetal atoms tend to lose electrons.
Ionization energies can help you predict what ions an element will form. If the increase in energy between the first and second ionization energies is large, it is relatively easy to remove one electron but difficult to remove the second. Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they form. As the number of electrons increases, the attraction of the nucleus for any one electron decreases.
The distance between atoms is extremely small so the atomic radius is measured in centimeters cm which is 10 Elements are placed into groups vertical columns based on their electron configurations. This led to the formation of the modern periodic table. The properties of elements within a period change as you move across a period from left to right. However, the pattern of the properties within a period repeats as you move from one period to the next. Mendeleev broke his own rule about placing elements in order of increasing atomic mass by placing tellurium before iodine on his periodic table.
He thought the atomic mass for those two elements were incorrect, but they were not. Many elements have been around for thousands of years, like gold, copper and silver.
CH104: Chemistry and the Environment
However, only 30 elements were identified by Elements in columns 3 through 12 have their highest energy electron in an outer s or p sublevel. Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they form because when an atom loses an electron, the attraction between the remaining electrons and the nucleus is increased.
When Dobereiner classified the elements, he found that the properties of the metals calcium, barium,and strontium were very similar. He grouped these three elements into what he called? Element X has the following electron configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 Which of the following describes this element?
Which of the following is the correct electron configuration for an element that is in row 4, column 2? The electron configuration of a certain element ends with 3p 5. Which of the following describes its position in the periodic table?
The subatomic particle that plays the greatest role in determining the physical and chemical properties of an element is the:. Played times. Print Share Edit Delete. Live Game Live.Sign in. Don't have an account? We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. Please select the correct language below. Add to folder [? Find out how you can intelligently organize your Flashcards.
You have created 2 folders. Please upgrade to Cram Premium to create hundreds of folders! If two identical nonmetal atoms bond together like Chlorine-Chlorine what type of bond is it if the electrons are shared equally?
The have no electronegativity attraction for an electron and their ionization energy is so high they will not release an electron. What is the Lewis structure for carbon tetraiodide, CI 4? Flashcards FlashCards Essays. Create Flashcards. Share This Flashcard Set Close. Please sign in to share these flashcards. We'll bring you back here when you are done. Sign in Don't have an account?
Set the Language Close. Add to Folders Close. Please sign in to add to folders. Upgrade to Cram Premium Close. Upgrade Cancel. Shuffle Toggle On. Card Range To Study through. How many electrons does a phosphorus atom need to satisfy the octet rule? How many electrons does a nitrogen atom need to satisfy the octet rule? How many electrons does a sulfur atom need to satisfy the octet rule?
How many electrons does an oxygen s atom need to satisfy the octet rule? How many electrons does a chlorine atom need to satisfy the octet rule? How many electrons does a bromine atom need to satisfy the octet rule?
What is the name for a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds? What type of bond is composed of nonmetals bonded with nonmetals? What type of bond features the sharing of valence electrons? What type of bond is composed of a metals bonded with a nonmetal. What type of bond features the transfer of valence electrons? Draw the correct Lewis Dot diagram for hydrogen.
Draw the correct Lewis Dot diagram for Rubidium. Draw the correct Lewis Dot diagram for calcium.The spectrum consists of colored lines, at least one of which probably the brightest is red.
Red: nm; 4. Green: nm; 5. Blue: nm; 6. Somewhat different numbers are also possible. Quantized energy means that the electrons can possess only certain discrete energy values; values between those quantized values are not permitted. Both involve a relatively heavy nucleus with electrons moving around it, although strictly speaking, the Bohr model works only for one-electron atoms or ions.
If the requirements of classical electromagnetic theory that electrons in such orbits would emit electromagnetic radiation are ignored, such atoms would be stable, having constant energy and angular momentum, but would not emit any visible light contrary to observation.
If classical electromagnetic theory is applied, then the Rutherford atom would emit electromagnetic radiation of continually increasing frequency contrary to the observed discrete spectrathereby losing energy until the atom collapsed in an absurdly short time contrary to the observed long-term stability of atoms.
The Bohr model retains the classical mechanics view of circular orbits confined to planes having constant energy and angular momentum, but restricts these to quantized values dependent on a single quantum number, n.
Both models have a central positively charged nucleus with electrons moving about the nucleus in accordance with the Coulomb electrostatic potential. Bohr also assumed that electrons orbiting the nucleus normally do not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation, but do so when the electron switches to a different orbit. Although both b and c are correct, e encompasses both and is the best answer. Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.
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